Behavior Shaping Game (for Humans)

[long nerdy post warning]

PORTL set up.jpg

I am very lucky to have inspiring professional dog trainers in my life who help me be a better dog geek and parent. When my dog trainer friend Sarah Owings asked if I wanted to playtest a “Tabletop Shaping Game” as her lab rat, my answer was YES YES YES.

Sarah’s game is a version of a behavior shaping game (for humans) developed many years ago by renowned UK dog trainer Kay Laurence, to help dog trainers become better trainers. When our dogs fail to learn something, make mistakes, or get frustrated, this is usually because something in the training plan isn’t working. The games are for trainers to hone their skills in testing, refining, and fixing their training plans. The learner or the dog is never blamed or punished.

There is also a variant of this game called PORTL (portable operant research teaching laboratory) that is used by the University of North Texas for research into Behavior.

In Sarah’s version of the game:

  1. There is 1 Teacher and 1 Learner
  2. The game is played with objects on a table, a clicker, and reinforcers. (reinforcers/”treats” are represented by small objects – there are a few different kinds) The Learner chooses their reinforcer before the start of the game.
  3. Each mini-session is short – 10 reinforcers per session. We work on ONE goal at a time.
  4. Click + reinforcer = Learner is to repeat the behavior. No click = try something else.
  5. There is no talking while the Learner is working.
  6. Each player takes notes at the end of each session and there is discussion at the end of the game. Was the Learner Happy? Confused? Thoughtful? Frustrated?

My partner Nathan, and I both took turns being the Teacher and the Learner. In between the sessions, Sarah privately instructed the Teacher what to do. I can’t go into all the details of the game we played because this would be like publishing spoilers and ruining it for everyone, but I will share general insights from MY experience.

It was interesting to FEEL what it’s like being the “dog” and learning about how Nathan and I learn differently!

portl01.jpg

GAME 1: Nathan trains me to Flip His Monkey (not a euphemism).

The goal was to allow me to explore the objects on the table and then Nathan was to strengthen ONE behavior with added reinforcement (Click & R+).

Sarah gave an example: “the way a dog might initiate jumping up behavior at the door, then get reinforced for it by humans looking down, talking to him, pushing him down, and doing other exciting things in response.“ 

I personally don’t have any issue with Boogie jumping up, but here’s a reinforced behavior I know too well.

ABC pizza

When I touched the monkey head on the table, he CLICKED and gave me a “treat”. None of the other objects on the table earned me a click. I learned quickly that the target behavior had to do with the Monkey. Every time I touched the Monkey, I received a Click and R+ so I kept touching the Monkey.

game1

Observations:

  • One time Nathan clicked when I did something different (put the Monkey on the Frog), so I repeated the different behavior, and when I didn’t receive a click, I was momentarily confused. Later, I read his notes and he had written “I screwed up” – he had accidentally clicked a behavior he didn’t mean to click. It wasn’t a big deal because I was being clicked many times afterwards for doing the correct behavior.

howshefelt

  • At the end of the game, when Nathan and I compared notes, I had circled “Happy” and “Thoughtful/Focused” on my sheet of paper, but according to Nathan, I seemed frustrated like I wanted MORE. “You wanted to build something with ALL the objects on the table”. This was true – after being clicked 30 times for repeatedly picking up and flipping the Monkey, I was bored and had started interacting with the other objects on the table to see if there was something else that could earn me clicks.
  • In the 3rd session, the other objects had been removed from the table so it was clear that I had to interact only with the Monkey.

Sarah: “We learned that you are a learner that enjoys novelty, puzzles, more interesting challenges–those types of actions are more reinforcing for you than simply getting the right answer. This is what I love best about training. Ever when the teacher’s plans go awry, if you listen to what your learner is telling you, you learn how to teach that learner better in the future.”

GAME 2: Lili trains Nathan to Put His Finger in my Scrunchie (also not a euphemism)

Game2A

There was a Scrunchie on the table – no other objects present – and the goal was to have Nathan put his finger in the Scrunchie- and he took to it so quickly – only after 2 clicks, that Sarah instructed me to put this behavior on cue in the next session. 

My cue was a card with a yellow diamond on it.

portl02

Sarah: “The order here is very important…First you hold up the cue card…THEN you moved the scrunchie in front of him…behavior…Click R+. Not the other way around”

​When Nathan got it right very quickly, my next goal was to teach Stimulus Control. ie, Nathan should put his finger in the scrunchie when I give the cue. When I don’t give the cue, he shouldn’t put his finger in the scrunchie.

Here was something new to me – first of all, I had to establish a Off-Cue Behavior (in this case, eye contact from Nathan) that I could also click and treat. The goal with having Off-Cue and On-Cue Behaviors is to to reduce learner errors and/or frustration and keep the rate of reinforcement up. The Learner will always get reinforced for something, and no punishment or extinction is necessary.

Game 2B

In contrast, an illustration of what Negative Punishment (= removing something to prevent behavior from recurring) would look like, which can make the Learner shut down or hesitate to keep playing, or feel frustrated if they didn’t get the Cue to begin with.

negativepunishment1

 

Observations:

  • When I first held up the cue card, Nathan stopped. He stared at the card for a long time before picking up the scrunchie. Later, he told us he saw the yellow card as “a penalty card” like in soccer, so he had immediately interpreted this as a NO signal. This was a great example of Learners bringing past experiences to the table.

Sarah said – Imagine teaching a dog a new cue for SIT which is a hand signal (she lowered her hand with palm faced down), and what if in a previous home this is the same hand signal the dog would see before every time he got hit.

The cue that we think is neutral, may not be neutral for this individual dog. It may have other negative associations of which we are not aware. It’s important to pay attention/listen to our individual Learner so we can choose our cues with care, and train accordingly.

  • When I was training the Off-Cue Behavior, (no cue card) I started with no scrunchie on the table, and added this back later. The very first time that I added the scrunchie back in front of Nathan with no cue, he stared at it for a long while. He then picked up the scrunchie and put his finger in it, and when I didn’t click, he put it back down and looked at me like he knew he shouldn’t have done that. This was actually MY mistake. I changed the criteria, added the distraction, and should have clicked when he first got it right, instead of waiting for a different behavior. 

Sarah: “Clicking just for holding still for half a second, with hands in lap, would have ensured that he NOT interact with it on the first round and cemented the information that sitting still was correct. Instead, you waited a long time, waiting for eye contact. Eventually he was not sure about what you wanted and made a mistake–putting the scrunchie on his finger off-cue. But Nathan’s one error was informative for him. He interacted with the scrunchie–no click. He put it down and looked at you. You presented the cue–back on track. You made good teaching choices there.”

Offcuebehavior

In 40 repetitions, Nathan made a (off-cue behavior) mistake only ONCE. That was pretty good, I thought. 🙂

Also for some reason, whenever Nathan gave me eye-contact he would burst into laughter which then made me laugh. The more I clicked this eye-contact, the session turned into a laugh-fest. We could both circle “Happy” on our review sheets.

To summarize, these Behavior Shaping Games were a fun and fascinating way to experience how operant conditioning works, the power of clear non-verbal communication, and individual learning styles.

Most importantly, I got a sense of what it might feel like to be a dog being trained by a human-trainer, (Sorry, Boogie. I have so much more empathy for you, now!) and a much clearer sense that there are two individuals involved in this training game.

I think Nathan was a better Learner – he was way more focused with his attention. I was more all over the place as a Learner and got bored even without realizing I got bored until this was pointed out to me later.

To those “Obedience” people who dismiss Positive Reinforcement training as something like “bribery”  or “spoiling the dog” – this couldn’t be further from the truth. When done well, I see R+ training is an admirable skill and demonstrates good planning, good timing, an ability to read your learner and change your training plan to help them succeed and not be frustrated. There is so much brain and heart in this approach to training.

Thank you, Sarah!

P.S. Boogie is deaf in his old age, so I no longer use the clicker or any verbal cues. I use a “thumbs up” for a click/yes.

RELATED:

Check out this amazing video by expert trainer Mary Hunter. It’s super advanced but offers a great example of training/shaping without using words, planned in such a way that the learner gets it right 100% of the time. (This blog post by Mary Hunter is also worth reading: When Teaching Doesn’t Equal Learning)

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June 17, 2018 at 7:30 pm Leave a comment

2017 Book List

Dog-related Books 2017

Dog-related Books I read this year:
  1. What The Dog Knows is the story of a German Shepherd who becomes a professional cadaver dog. Absolutely fascinating if you are interested in how sniffer dogs are trained. With pieces of dead human bodies.
  2. The Education of Will is by renowned dog behaviorist Patricia McConnell. This is a heartfelt memoir about trauma and the healing process – for both humans and dogs.
  3. Considerations for the City Dog is a for people like me who live in urban environments where there are dogs everywhere. This book covers management, training, everything to help you and your dog avoid stress! By Melissa McCue-McGrath whom I had the pleasure of meeting in Boston this year.
  4. We Are All Completely Beside Ourselves has nothing to do with dogs. But if you are interested in animal behavior and human-animal relationships, please read this. A very profound and stunning novel that I read from start to finish on the plane – which was not a good place to cry my eyes out. Hint: Chimpanzees. Then go watch the new Jane Goodall movie.
  5. Pit Bull: The Battle Over An American Icon is an exceptionally well-researched and riveting book about how dog breeds become cultural symbols of heroism or criminality. In different periods of history, there has always been a scapegoated dog breed. If you are thinking of adopting a pit bull, please also check out The Pit Bull Life by Linda Lombardi. (One of my illustrations is in it!).
  6. The Dog Merchants is very eye opening. Here is a book written for everyday people who adopt or buy dogs, about how the pet industry works. The takeaway message is that there are good and bad rescues; there are good and bad breeders, and consumers could educate themselves or where our dogs really come from.
  7. Science Comics: Dogs: From Predator to Protector is an educational graphic novel with a hefty amount of information about dog origins, domestication, genetics… everything you want to know about The Dog is here. Co-written by two canine scientists I follow on Twitter, Julie Hecht and Mia Cobb, with fun and dynamic art. In a similar vein, I also recommend the Biology of Dogs online course by the Institute of Canine Biology. (I am in the middle of this course right now)
  8. SOS Dog: The Purebred Dog Hobby Re-examined is written by Edith and Johan Gallant who used to breed and show schnauzers before they starting living with and sharing their knowledge about The Africanis –  the landrace dogs of South Africa. This is a book about the health and welfare issues in dog breeding for conformation shows. Edith helped me out when I was designing the Africanis for my map.
  9. An Eye For a Dog: An Illustrated Guide to Judging Purebred Dogs is a trip. I bought this book because I was researching dog breeds. The book is full of images that test your ability to see subtle differences in physical structures within the same breed, and judge these by AKC breed standards. You learn to see dogs the way dog nerds see dogs.
Books that I will be reading this Christmas (I can’t wait to take a break so I can read!):
  1. Million Dollar Dog Brand by Nichole Sears, a marketing coach for petpreneurs. After all these years working as an artist for dog businesses, I am finally going to learn how to define and market my brand. I am doing a workshop with the author next year. Wish me luck 😃
  2. Only Have Eyes For you: Exploring Canine Research by Linda Case. Myths about dog nutrition, training, and other issues get debunked by science.
  3. What It’s Like To Be A Dog by Gregory Berns. Because Patricia McConnell recommended it!

Did you read any good dog/animal books this year?

December 18, 2017 at 8:57 am 1 comment

On reposting the drawings from this blog

Please don’t repost or share the images you find on this blog.

The reason I create graphics for these blog posts is because the act of creating images helps ME to learn and remember things that I need to know. They also help make the blog look more fun and inviting. I don’t create these drawings for you to repost them elsewhere on social media. If you want to share my drawings, Please USE THESE ONES which are offered as free downloads under a Creative Commons License.

Please do not use the images from Boogie’s blog. These images were created for specific personal blog posts/contexts, and relevant to specific periods of time in my life with Boogie. For instance, an infographic I drew 5 years ago might be relevant only to that particular blog post, and today it might be outdated or incorrect info and definitely not something I want to have passed around the internet as though it were THE TRUTH. I am always learning and updating my work.

I repeat – this is a PERSONAL BLOG. If there is something here you want to share or repost, please ASK FIRST. Be prepared for me to say No.

Thank you,
Lili

July 27, 2017 at 5:38 pm 5 comments

Bad food, New food.

or How to Train Your Dog to Hate Food

A few weeks ago, Boogie injured himself jumping down from the couch (piercing yelp, disc problem) and had to be fed Tramadol every meal for about 7 days. Tramadol is a painkiller pill that tastes AWFUL so I decided to hide it in something delicious: a Freshpet soft meaty kibble. This had worked before for pill-giving, so I didn’t think it would fail. I had previously tried peanut butter, cream cheese, you name it… they worked the first time, and then never again. Boogie stopped liking peanut butter or cream cheese.
hidden-pill

 

I dropped a handful of Freshpet meaty bits into his dinner and mixed it well. One of these meaty pieces concealed the bitter pill.

On and off for the next few days, Boogie refused to eat his dinner if there was any Freshpet in it. He would sniff his bowl, stare at me, then walk away. I had to coax him to eat his food by adding in extra stuff, like ham pieces, tuna etc. or hand feeding it to him. He would eat Freshpet as hand-fed treats but not at mealtimes.

Even when I stopped giving him  Freshpet or Tramadol, Boogie was still suspicious of his food. And then one day he refused to eat any dinner at all; and same deal the next morning, as if all his meals had been contaminated.

By the way, his dinner was the same Darwin’s cooked beef that he had been enjoying for the past 3+ years. I didn’t know what to do. Should I change his food? What if he dislikes his new food too? I had already turned him off peanut butter, cream cheese, Freshpet, Darwin’s…

After I transferred his uneaten Darwin’s dinner out of his red bowl and into a new bowl, he ate up his dinner immediately!  The exact same dinner.

Usual bowl = food is potentially bad.
New bowl = food is uncontaminated.

Same thing happened the next morning. Boogie ate his food after I transferred it to a different bowl.

This is what I believe happened: I had (unconsciously) classically-conditioned a negative association with the bowl because I put something very bad in it ONCE or TWICE.

I should have known better that this is how classical conditioning works. With good stuff, good feelings transfer and spread. With bad stuff, bad associations are created and these spread too. Perhaps Boogie also no longer trusted me. 😔

A Facebook friend told me that when she was a kid a particular food made her throw up. And because this food was usually served with X, she also could also no longer eat X without feeling nauseous.

Likewise with aversive training methods eg, prong collars, leash jerks, intimidation etc… Even though our intention is to stop an unwanted behavior from happening again, we are also creating bad feelings that could attach themselves to stuff we don’t want them attached to. In a documentary I watched some time ago, (Tough Love?) –  a dog owner offered her puppy a new toy. He grabbed it too roughly and bit her hand. Without knowing any better at the time, she smacked her puppy on the nose or shouted at him, or did something else punishing. Later on another occasion she offered her puppy a toy to play with. Puppy saw the toy, whimpered and ran away.

The big lesson I learned from this recent experience is that the order in which things are done is extremely important. If Classical Conditioning is to be used correctly for good  (not evil), the essential rule is that the bad thing (trigger) needs to be seen first, followed by the good thing (delicious food), and we have to be careful not to accidentally show the food first before the bad thing comes along so that we don’t unintentionally condition the dog to hate the food, or to condition the food to predict bad stuff.

I was way more successful giving Boogie his Tramadol when I offered him the pill first  – full transparency here, he could see the butter-coated pill before I put in in his mouth –  and then the liverwurst (new food with no previous bad associations) straight after. I was also careful to use a different bowl for pill-giving purposes. He still didn’t like the pill because the awful taste is still there, but he tolerated me shoving it in his mouth because LIVERWURST. He didn’t run away the next time I approached him with the pill.  He focused on the liverwurst.
Other food-related news, we are trying out OLLIE dog food (first box is discounted). Boogie seems to be enjoying this very much! I love that the packets can live in the fridge for up to 2 weeks because I have no space left in my freezer. And there is no thawing or cooking required! I love that they included a scoop and probiotics.  One difference is that Boogie is producing more poop  now that I am no longer feeding ‘raw’.

olliepetfood
I must share this dog-treat baking hack, courtesy of Elaine Anderson.

treatsfromamold1

I didn’t have any canned chicken so I used canned salmon, and 1 egg instead of 2. The treats drop right out so CLEAN and PERFECT!  500 treats!

treatsfromamold

 Click here:  http://eileenanddogs.com/2017/01/11/making-500-non-crumbly-dog-treats-from-a-mold/

January 14, 2017 at 9:03 pm Leave a comment

When you are out walking your dog…

NoSpaceEtiquette - Lili Chin

Question 1:  When you are out walking with your dog and you see another person and their dog straight ahead of you, on the same path, what do you do?

 

A. I keep walking straight ahead on the same path towards them. My dog is friendly. If my dog wants to meet their dog, I let him. If not, we overtake on the same path.

 

B. I stop some distance away and call out “Is your dog friendly?” If they say yes, I ask if my dog can say hi or we will simply overtake, giving enough space between dogs. If they say no, my dog and I move off the path.

 

C. My dog and I keep walking in that direction, but in a curve, so that the dogs have more space away from each other. Or I cross to the other side of the street to give them space. I don’t assume that all dogs are friendly and want to socialize.

 

Question 2: When you are out walking alone (no dog with you) and you see another person and their dog straight ahead of you on the same path, what do you do?

 

A. I keep walking straight ahead on the same path towards them to overtake them.

 

B. If I want to say hi to their dog, I stop some distance away and call out “Is your dog friendly?” If they say yes, I move closer to say hi. If they say no, I move off the path, or walk in a curve around them, to give space.

 

C. If we are not going to greet each other,  I  move to one side of the path to give more space to the dog and person. I don’t make eye contact or bother the dog.

 

JuneKimBook-0045

 

Question 3. When you are out walking (with or without your dog) and you see another person and their dog straight ahead of you on the same path. Their dog is staring intensely at you or at your dog, or lunging, or barking.  Or the owner tells you that their dog is not friendly. What do you do?

 

A. I keep walking straight ahead on the same path towards them to overtake them. Their dog is their problem. My dog is well-behaved and friendly.

 

B. I move us off the path to give space to them to pass. My dog is well-trained. I ask my dog to stay with me so he doesn’t approach their dog.

 

C. I lead us across the street immediately to give them lots of space. I know their dog is upset or scared.

 

Question 4. When you are out walking with your reactive dog and you seen a person or dog straight ahead on the same path. You KNOW that your dog is going to bark or freak out. What do you do?

 

A. We keep walking straight ahead to overtake this other person or dog. When my dog barks, I punish him by tightening the leash or I scold him:”No! Stop it! Bad dog!” or “Sit! Sit!” Dammit. He does this every time.

 

B. I stop some distance away as soon as my dog sees the trigger. I see how my dog is feeling. I give treats immediately to condition him to associate “scary things” with good things. If the person is too close or walking towards us in our direction, call my dog, lead him off the path immediately so he feels safe. I know my dog is sensitive so it is top priority I make him feel safe so that he can learn to cope without barking.

 

C. I lead my dog across the street immediately. I give him enough space away from the trigger, to be certain that he feels safe, and so that the other dog and person are also not bothered.

 

 

 

Based on my personal experience,

 

Answer A is what MOST PEOPLE DO.
99% of the dog owners I see on the street do not give a toss about other people and their dogs. Most people assume that all dogs are like their own dog. They will keep walking straight ahead directly towards Boogie and me (Boogie might be sniffing the ground or doing a pee, not having even seen them), with the intention to overtake us on the same path, and it doesn’t at all cross their minds that my dog might not want to be NEAR another dog. Even when Boogie has seen them and is staring… they continue walking towards us anyway. Don’t get me started on the people who make intense eye contact with a dog that is barking at them and refuse to back off.

 

Most people do not realize that a dog that is staring or growling is doing so because he feels threatened and wants space. Most people think that when a dog barks it’s because he is being an asshole and should be stopped.

 

The frustrating reality is that most people do not give a shit about other people’s dogs on the street and what they might be feeling.

 

Answer B sometimes happens. These people are the 0.09% of considerate souls I meet on the street who have some awareness that not all dogs are alike; and that not all dogs want to meet you or your dog.

 

Answer C People – Right now in my life, you are the 0.01% of dog people I see on the street. THANK YOU! xox

 

July 27, 2016 at 10:11 pm Leave a comment

Following on from “Hair Loss and Crusty Skin”

I notice that the blog entries about Boogie’s skin issues get the MOST visits and comments compared to everything else on this blog. This “hair loss” post is many years old, and so are all the posts tagged Skin, but the comments and questions keep coming in. Lots of questions from parents of suffering dogs who want to know which remedies worked and which ones didn’t.

I don’t have answers for other people’s dogs, but here is an update for Boogie….

After spending $$$$ on vet bills, products, and visits to the dermatology clinic over the past 5 years, I decided NOT to go the path of allergy testing and lifelong injections. Our pet insurance doesn’t cover this stuff because anything skin-related is considered a “pre-existing condition”, so I have been focused on more cost-effective solutions.

2015: Boogie’s skin is not great but it is SO MUCH BETTER. In fact, over the past 12 months, Boogie’s skin has been at its best, and looks pretty good compared to previous years.  The summer of 2014 was the first time in 5 years that he did not go on a long course of antibiotics and lose most of his hair. He also had no crusty bits.

The “Solution”:

It took roughly 8 months before I saw the difference with Darwins food and the Pet Cod Liver Oil. Boogie’s coat became fuller and shinier; not rough and dry like before.

Benadryl was recommended by our vet. It seems extreme to be giving this to him every single day – but he is less inclined to scratch, and scratching is the FIRST STEP to infections. In warmer/itchier seasons, he gets 1 benadryl per day. In cooler seasons, he gets one every other day. He still scratches, and is still itchy… but I think it would be much worse without the benadryl.

I also bathe Boogie with Vet’s Best Allergy-Itch Relief shampoo, and occasionally soak him in a tub of diluted Vet’s Best Hot Spot Spray or I wipe him down with a cloth that I put some spray on. Especially after he has been rolling around in the grass.

Boogie still gets red and raw spots… especially on his face and in his armpits. I have found that the Virbac Resicort lotion (from our vet) helps with his armpits, but unfortunately this is a recurring problem.

P.S. I tried the coconut oil and apple cider vinegar… these didn’t do anything.

 

UPDATE – May 2016

This here is a really really old blog post but as I am still receiving so many comments  and questions, I want to give a very quick update on Boogie’s skin problems which did in fact, repeat themselves every Summer  until last year when we started him on Apoquel – an allergy medicine that does not carry the harmful effects of antibiotics or steroids or benadryl.

Boogie’s allergies were ENVIRONMENTAL, not food-related. So the grass, pollen, air, flea bites… etc.

Apoquel inhibits itching so that Boogie doesn’t feel the need to scratch – which means that his skin does not get infected (which leads to Staph infections). Boogie’s skin has cleared up and he looks great. He also has had blood work done and everything is normal. No bad side effects from the Apoquel except some weight gain.

The only problem so far with Apoquel is that it is expensive and Boogie has to take it EVERY DAY forever. When we ran out and he stopped taking it,  the itchiness came back within days. It is also only available from an Animal Dermatologist. Vets have a limited supply.

The other very important life changer for Boogie is WEEKLY baths with Hexazole shampoo – this stuff is amazing. Everyone comments on how nice and shiny Boogie’s coat is. Also expensive, of course. But it works.

I am not a medical expert so don’t take my word for anything. Please talk to your vet or dermatology specialist. Hope this helps! – Lili

(Follow us on instagram HERE)

April 15, 2015 at 7:08 pm 5 comments

Life with a deaf dog…

BOOGIE

Situations in which Boogie now stays relaxed:
  • Dogs barking at him from behind fences
  • Sounds of footsteps walking up behind us on the street
  • The sound of buses, garbage trucks, fire trucks…
  • My sneezing (Boogie used to leave the room whenever I sneezed)
  • Watching youtube videos that have barking dogs in them
  • Watching noisy movies
  • Talking on Speaker Phone or Video Skype
  • Sound of the kitchen timer when I’m cooking
  • Sound of mail courier calling to me from outside the front door
  • Going to the bathroom, stepping out to do laundry, emptying the trash (Boogie doesn’t wake up)
Situations that still break my heart:
  • When I come home and he’s curled up asleep oblivious that I am there.
  • When I touch him gently to wake him up, and he JUMPS UP.
  • When after preparing his breakfast I peek out the door and he is standing there, staring at the kitchen door, waiting for me to stick my head out the door.
  • The one time I clapped my hands to call him (outdoors) and he became confused as to where the sound was coming from, became hypervigilant and started barking at everything on the street.
  • When I watch old videos of Boogie and me interacting (me talking, he responding)…  sometimes, I can’t help it… I start crying.
Nowadays, I have become much more mindful of my body language and facial expressions when I see Boogie looking at me.
I am using “thumbs up” as a replacement for “Yes!” or “Good Boy!” but to be honest, I don’t know if this is actually working even though I give him a treat after the thumbs up. I think he may be watching my face, not my thumb…
Boogieface

 

April 5, 2015 at 7:36 pm 5 comments

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